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Aerosol physical chemistry influences aerosol formation, growth, transport, heterogeneous reaction rates, and aerosol-cloud interactions. This tutorial covers the chemical thermodynamics of the aerosol phase, including theoretical development and important applications in aerosol science. Researchers interested in heterogeneous reactions or the dynamics of the aerosol size distribution will be especially interested in this tutorial. We will cover phase equilibria of condensed mixtures, activity models, and acidity. These concepts will then be applied to aerosol phase, which differs from that of bulk materials in a number of ways. For example, surface tension increases vapor pressure, increases internal pressure, suppresses liquid-liquid phase separation, and modulates viscosity. We will explore how these properties vary with temperature, diameter, and mixing state.